I. Alternative Setting Descriptions

Project COFFEE
Project COFFEE (Cooperative Federation for Educational Experiences) is an alternative high school located in Oxford Massachusetts that focuses on dropout prevention and school reconnection. The program services approximately 60 students, both regular and special education, from over 12 communities in central Massachusetts and northern Connecticut. There are many reasons why a student would be referred to COFFEE, but the overall rationale is that the student is not making effective progress in their current learning environment.

Academics and Vocation
Students spend half of their day in four core academic classes; English, history, science, and math. Because group sizes are small (5-9 students), learners are able to receive more individualized instruction and are able to learn at their own readiness level. The remainder of their day is spent in one of five occupational classes. The classes include small engine repair, horticulture/agriculture, carpentry, computer technology, and construction. Here students can learn job marketable skills that can help them succeed after they graduate. This also benefits students who have traditionally struggled in a classroom. Through their efforts, they can take pride in the many projects that have created personally and for members of the community and develop a stronger sense of self-esteem when they are able to see the tangible evidence of their skill and hard work. Upper-classmen who are in good standing in all of their classes may also be eligible for a work-study program. Students will earn credit for their occupation class while working their own part time job. There is also a full-time therapist on staff to meet regularly with students who require so in their IEPs and to help all children process whatever events that may happen during the day

Behavior Management
Behavior management is an important component to the program. Most of the students have struggled to maintain appropriate behavior in school setting their entire academic career. COFFEE tries to incorporate positive behavior management practices with quantitative data collection to measure and improve behavior. All students have a point sheet that their teachers are responsible for filling out at the end of each class. The five areas that are measured are time on task, work production, behavior, peer interaction, and following instructions. Students are give 0-2 points in each area based on their performance. The data gathered proves to be beneficial when developing goals and objectives on IEPs, providing parents and sending school districts updates on a child’s progress, and a running record to show to each student of how they have performed. COFFEE also utilizes a time out room as a behavior management tool. Students are referred there when their teacher has deemed their behavior so disruptive to the class that their removal is necessary. The referral should be less of a punitive measure and more of a learning tool. While there students have written apologies if deemed necessary, designed their own behavior contracts, and are encouraged to process what happened with the therapist.

Judge Rotenberg Center

The Judge Rotenberg Educational Center, located in Canton, Massachusetts, is a private, residential, special education school designed to assist students with behavioral problems. The program services both children and adults, ages ranging from 7 to 41, and is home to a diverse population of students with various disabilities. The Judge Rotenberg Center is often considered a placement of last resort for those students unable to be safely contained in other programs. The treatment program consists of the implementation of effective behavior modification techniques, including positive reinforcement protocols such as a token economy system and the use of contingency contracting. It is the school’s philosophy not to use psychotropic medication.

Educational Philosophy

At the Judge Rotenberg Center, ten students are assigned to each classroom. The students spend the bulk of their day in the classroom, leaving periodically to attend physical education, lunch, and leisure activities. Being a private school for students with behavioral disabilities, the students are required to attend school year-round, and are assigned to the same classroom for the entire school year, running from June to June. The classrooms are grouped according to age, not ability level; therefore, there exists great diversity in terms of learning styles, cultural and economic backgrounds, and behavioral challenges. The Judge Rotenber Center emphasizes individualized instruction, where students are able to learn at their own pace and the instruction is tailored to meet each student's unique learning style. In this manner, the students do not feel like they are competing against each other. Each student has his or her own personal computer, and they complete a majority of their assignments via the computer. Using specially designed educational software programs, the students receive immediate, descriptive feedback. If the student enters a wrong answer, he or she is informed of the correct answer instantaneously. Concepts are broken down into a carefully sequenced series of skills, and the student must master one skill before advancing to the next. In this manner, students can build upon previously learned skills to construct their own learning. Learning is measured by the rate of correct and incorrect responses as opposed to being graded as a percentage. The student's rate of learning is visually represented on a chart that both students and teachers can view. Teachers monitor student charts to make interventions. While individualized instruction is emphasized, teachers are encouraged to provide instruction using a variety of methods, to include group lessons, collaborative work/cooperative learning, peer tutoring, graphic organizers, and the use of student journals.

II. Differentiation

All teachers differentiate in their classroom. They differentiate to help emerging learners access information in different ways. They differentiate to allow students whose readiness levels have not developed to see information in a way that makes more sense to them. They also differentiate to keep all classroom learners engaged and excited about learning. Differentiated instruction is a pedagogical approach to teaching and learning for students of differing readiness levels, interests, and modes of learning within the same classroom. (Landrum & McDuffie, 2010) In this methodology, teachers with use varied techniques in order to present information to students and assess what they have learned.
The intent of differentiated instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is at the time and assisting them in the learning process. (Landrum& McDuffie, 2010)
There are three main areas a teacher can differentiate in order to make learning more successful. The first is content, or what is taught. This is not to say a student with a lower readiness level would have to lean a completely different subject than that of one who has progressed further. Rather, that student may be building a stronger foundation on a topic as another student would be working on material of a higher order of thinking. In this instance, the instruction should also focus on broad concepts. The focus of what is learned should also be aligned with any individual, class, and state goals. These concepts should also help the students gain an understanding of the main topics rather than focus in minute details. (National Center on Accessible Instruction Materials)
While using differentiated instruction techniques, teachers need to frequently assess their students in a number of areas. Pre-assessments, formative assessments,and summative assessments should be used to measure progress of the students and to determine the effectiveness of their practices. (Levy, 2008) Throughout these assessments, teachers can determine a student’s readiness level, interests, and learning profile. The knowledge of these three areas will help determine the way in which information is differentiated for a student or group and how the information is formatted for them. (Landrum & McDuffie, 2010)
This brings us to the second area of differentiation, the process. The process includes how we teach our students, but perhaps more importantly; it is the way in which our students learn. Knowing the learning styles, interests, and levels becomes extremely important in this area. Differentiated instruction also promotes the use of flexible groupings in this area. (Landrum & McDuffie, 2010) Here,students can also become teachers among their peers and take ownership in the learning process. Students who are more verbal may be paired with a student who enjoys drawing. Together they can write a story with an accompanying picture to show a scene. The use of wide-ranging activities in the learning process based on knowledge of the learners allows for a fun, interactive, and enriched learning experience.
The product is the final area that can be differentiated. The product is the way for a teacher to measure what the student has learned. This may range from a review of a short activity to a semester long project. Assessment should also be used as a teaching tool to further the learning process rather than a device to simply measure instruction. (National Center on Accessible Instruction Materials) It should also be known that the product should not be the same for each student.Some may be asked to write a story while others can draw a picture or act out a scene. A well-designed student product allows varied means of expression and alternative procedures and offers varying degrees of difficulty, types of evaluation, and scoring. (NationalCenter on Accessible Instruction Materials)
As Lesley Saunders and Bob Stradling state differentiated instruction is “the process of matching learning targets, tasks, activities, resources, and learning support to individual learners’ needs, styles, and rates of learning”. (Landrum & McDuffie, 2010) As educators, we strive to provide the right education for our students each day. As the needs, backgrounds, and learning styles of our learners continue to evolve, so do our professional practices inside the classroom. The days of worksheets and rote memorization should be a thing of the past. With the proliferation of technology and advanced knowledge of the way our students learn, practices like differentiated instruction with help lead the way to achievement in our schools and success beyond.

III. Physical Layout

Current Classroom Configuration

Concerning the current classroom that I teach, there are ten desks arranged along the perimeter of the room. Each desk is outfitted with a computer, and the students sit facing the computer. I've found that this is not conducive to effective classroom instruction, and reinforces individualized instruction instead of promoting group-related activities. In essence, the students are facing the wall instead of facing the front of the classroom, so it is sometimes difficult to acquire student attention. In order to conduct group lessons or to encourage the students to work together, the furniture needs to be completely rearranged, which is disruptive and time-consuming; however, I feel it's worth the effort. I'd prefer an alternative arrangement, with the students in a kind of horseshoe formation, where they are facing the teacher and each other. With the students facing each other, it is easier to facilitate classroom discussion. However, due to the educational philosophy of the institution where I teach, I am not at liberty to permanently rearrange the students' desks - I am restricted to having to move the students' desks back and forth each time I wish to conduct a group lesson or spearhead group-related, collaborative activities.
Classroom Layout

Research conducted on the appropriate physical layout of the classroom indicates that the proper placement of furniture and decor is critical in developing an atmosphere of support. The classroom layout should "reflect a teacher's philosophy on teaching and learning (Capizzi, 2009)." The classroom should be arranged in a manner that supports the learning activities that will be taking place. As stated above, my personal teaching philosophy emphasizes group work and cooperative learning. The current arrangement of my classroom does not support group work; therefore, a rearrangement of my classroom is in order.
It is important to design a classroom that facilitates the flow of human traffic and is free of clutter and obstacles. Overly crowded classrooms create an atmosphere of confusion, which undermines student learning. What I like about my classroom is that the middle of the room is completely open, allowing for easy maneuverability. This sharply limits the students' ability to disrupt and distract each other. The students have plenty of room to operate, and they rarely invade each other's personal spaces. In his article, Trussell (2008), reminds teachers to be mindful of the "bump factor" - students should be able to move freely about the classroom, without having to worry about bumping into each other's belongings or desks. Classroom materials should be located in easily accessible areas. The students shouldn't have to manipulate the classroom environment or squeeze into corners to gather materials for an assignment (Trussell, 2008). Before each classroom activity, I select a student to distribute all of the necessary equipment and materials. This sharply reduces the number of students walking around the classroom during a lesson, which is hugely distracting. Should the students need extra materials, they are permitted to walk up to the teacher's desk in the front of the room, where all of the required materials are clearly visible and neatly arranged. My goal is to limit the amount of potential distractions and to disrupt the learning process as little as possible. The students quickly acquire what they need and return to their seats in a polite, quiet fashion. I do my best to not let things pile up - it makes a huge difference. Cleanliness and orderliness are signs that I care, and if the students see that I care, then hopefully they will feel comfortable and be motivated to learn. The teacher sets the tone for the classroom - if the teacher is disorganized, then the students will follow the teacher's example. If the teacher takes the time to ensure that the classroom is aligned in the most effective manner possible, then this translates into an effective learning environment.

Student Work Displayed

Research suggests that it is wise to decorate bulletin boards with materials that are relevant to the topics currently being discussed in class. This might help activate and maintain student interest, and it provides the students with a visual representation of what is being taught. Decorations should be meaningful and have value to the students (Capizzi, 2009). It is important for teachers to familiarize themselves with their students' likes and dislikes, so the decorations align with student preferences. As an example, I teach a class of ten, emotionally disturbed high-school students, so I am cognizant not to saturate the bulletin boards with mawkishly sentimental platitudes. I've noticed that the students respond favorably to inspirational quotes from athletes and music artists, and they actually enjoy looking at geographical maps. Maps also help to deliver quality instruction, as I can immediately provide the students with a visual depiction of the continent, country, mountain chain, river, etc. that's being discussed. The majority of my students were largely unfamiliar with geography upon entry into my classroom, and many of them are now curious and eager to see where certain countries are located to give them a visual of where their ancestors originated.
As several scholars point out, in order to inspire students to perform and to create a positive learning environment, it is highly advisable that teachers display student work in the classroom (Trussell, 2008; Capizzi, 2009; Brainard, 2001). By displaying student work, it sends a clear message to the students that the teacher truly values their contributions and efforts. It is comforting for the students to know that the teacher is fully invested in providing them with a quality education. Furthermore, posting student work in the classroom gives the students examples of the quality of work the teacher expects them to produce (Trussell, 2008). It provides the students with tangible objectives to strive for. Teachers should be careful to rotate the student work that is displayed, so as not to inadvertently show favoritism toward certain students. Teachers should strive to show examples of each of their student's' work "at least once over the course of a semester or grading period (Trussell, 2008)." My students respond favorably when they see their work posted on the bulletin boards - they seem to view it as an accomplishment. The students are motivated by the possibility of having their work displayed for all to see, and are appreciative of the recognition. This positive feedback gives them incentive to keep working diligently and to consistently put forth a strong effort.

Student Desks

Desk arrangement is a personal choice for teachers (Capizzi, 2009). Teachers should be mindful to choose the arrangement that best suits the needs of their students and is the most supportive of learning activities being conducted. The teacher should have enough space to easily maneuver throughout the classroom and, ideally, the teacher should be able to see all of the students from all parts of the classroom (Capizzi, 2009). Having a wide open space in the middle of my classroom allows for easy and fluid mobility, and I am able to see all of my students from every vantage point. I seat the students who are most readily distracted at the front of the room, closest to my desk, with the intention of mitigating the frequency of off-task behaviors. At the back of my classroom is a large window, so the students least prone to inattentiveness are seated there. The students' desks are located well out of the way of high-traffic areas - the students have a clear path to the teacher's desk, supply closet, wastebasket, and pencil sharpener. If the students need to come up to the front of the room to write on the whiteboard, which is frequently the case, there are not any obstacles in their way. Having the students move around frequently makes them feel more comfortable. To alleviate student boredom, I frequently rotate assigned seats and switch group members. In this manner, the students are given the opportunity to work with all of their classmates, not just one or two.
IV. Behavior Management

75 % of teachers noted that they would spend more time teaching and teaching effectively if they had less disruptive behavior in their classrooms. (Cuardino and Fullerton, 2010) A classroom with no behavior issues would be a dream for any teacher. The amount of learning and growth for all students would grow exponentially. However, this is simply not possible. What is possible for teachers is to be educated and proactive in their approach to classroom management and try to lessen the impact of negative behaviors while learning. One of the first things a teacher needs to do is know their students. Knowing their backgrounds, readiness level, and behavioral and social/emotional needs will prove invaluable in assessing what they will need in class. Teachers also need to make genuine connections with students. You have to be seen as someone who truly cares about them rather than some who is just there to “make them behave” or simply collect a paycheck. If teachers are to expect students to maintain appropriate behavior, they are to model what they expect children to do at all time.

Teachers who are effective classroom managers excel in five categories; have clear rules and expectation that are communicated effectively, explicitly teach the rules and routines in class through modeling and examples, acknowledge positive student behavior through praise, deliver prompt responses to inappropriate behavior before it can escalate, and are consistent with consequences and praise for negative and positive behavior. (Oliver and Reschly, 2010) By consistently addressing these categories, teachers allow student to become more comfortable in class. They may not always agree with the rules or methods, but they will know what consequences their actions will bring and hopefully help them to make better decisions. Rules should be posted so anyone who enters the class can view them. One of the most important things to remember is to apply all rules consistently. One of the worst things that can be done is to not enforce rules or enforce them sporadically. Proactive measure for teachers to take to help manage behaviors also includes setting the appropriate physical environment for their specific learners. Will desks be set up in rows or small groups? Will you have a permanent seating chart? Is there enough light in the room? Can all ofthe students be seen from the teacher’s desk? Can students move freely? Where is the trash, the pencil sharpener, the bathroom? Ensuring that all students can learn in a safe environment is your prime objective. Time must be devoted to preparing your classroom before students arrive (Pedota, 2007)
These are just a small number of the things that need to be considered when a teacher is considering the design of their room.

Proximity is another practice to consider. Teachers shouldbe active in class, not just sitting at their desks. If you are standing next to a student, or if he knows that you can see him, the likelihood of them misbehaving is greatly decreased. “Teach from you feet” is excellent advice for any teacher. Maintaining communication with parents, teachers, and specialistsis also very important. Keeping your room clean is also a must. A messy classroom sends the message that it is alright not to clean up after one’s self and a lack of respect for the class itself will begin to permeate throughout the classroom. A well organized classroom promotes more positive interactions between teachers and children, reducing the probability that challenging behaviors will occur. (Cuardino and Fullerton, 2010) All of these aspects contribute to the way a classroom functions. A teacher’s ability to maintain appropriate behavior through the consistent enforcement of proper management techniques will help better help all students to achieve to their fullest.

Depending on your class/institutional philosophy, giving children reinforcers to promote and reward positive behavior can be very beneficial. In order to establish an effective reward system, you must first clearly establish the positive behavior you would like to reinforce or the negative behavior you want decrease. The rewards then have to be desirable for the students. Knowing what your students like or appreciate is a must. If the reward does not interest them, there really is no desire to earn them. There are a number of ideas one could develop or research to help them reinforce behaviors in the class. With only slight modifications, a program for elementary school children can be made to fit high school learners.


V. Instruction Methods/Assessments

Preassessment, Formative assessment, and Summative assessment.

Preassessment

Within a given classroom, there exists great diversity in terms of student abilities and experiences. Not all students learn in the same manner, function at the same level, or have the same amount of worldly knowledge and experiences; therefore, it is inappropriate to deliver instruction in the same fashion to each student. Pre-assessment helps teachers pinpoint exactly where each student is operating in relation to what they plan to teach (Levy, 2008). It is critical to recognize prior knowledge so students can engage in learning activities appropriate to their level. To teach effectively, we must know where to begin (Levy, 2008). As an example, a student cannot advance to working with fractions and decimals if he or she has not yet mastered basic addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. To jump immediately to more advanced concepts provides a disservice to the student. This student requires more intensive instruction and the concepts broken down into more manageable steps. Properly implemented preassessment strategies help teachers determine where students are when they enter the classroom and help them move forward down their educational paths (Levy, 2008).

Summative Assessment

Summative assessments are given "periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know ( Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007)." Typically, summative assessments are utilized to measure student progress relative to content standards (Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007). Some examples of summative assessments include: state assessments, district benchmark or interim assessments, end of unit or chapter tests, and mid-term and final exams. Summative assessments should not be utilized to guide classroom instructional practice, as the results yielded do not necessarily present an accurate portrayal of a given student's abilities. Not all students respond favorably to testing, and students should be given the opportunity to show off what they've learned in a variety of ways. Ongoing assessment throughout the learning process is critical as it directs the teacher and students where to go next, and this is where formative assessment comes into play (Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007).

Formative Assessment

When used properly, formative assessment provides both teacher and student with valuable information pertaining to student understanding of the material that is currently being taught (Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007). Based on this information, teachers can make adjustments in order to deliver more effective instruction. Formative assessment guides classroom practice, as it enables teachers to make instructional decisions throughout the learning process. A critical aspect of formative assessment is student involvement (Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007). Students should be afforded the opportunity to assess their own learning and reflect. One of the most important things teachers can do is to consistently provide their students with descriptive feedback. Descriptive feedback alerts students to what they are doing well and gives them a clear idea of the areas in which they need to improve. The students see that the teacher is concerned and is investing his or her time to help them develop and advance, and as a result student willingness to learn is accelerated. Descriptive feedback is not simply a grade or a mark - this kind of limited feedback does not lead to student improvement (Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007). Having students keep a record of their work helps them understand their own learning. The students can see firsthand the progress that they've made. The students are afforded the opportunity to examine their own learning picture - they can see where they started and where they are going (Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007). I've utilized this assessment practice in my own classroom to great effect. I have my students save all of their work, and I frequently have them write a journal entry where they are asked to reflect on what they've learned. The students seem to enjoy this, and they feel like active participants as opposed to passive observers. They aren't just watching me teach, but are deriving meaning from their own learning. Another practice I've found effective is peer assessment, where the students evaluate the quality of each other's work. The students seem to like the interaction, and some like being judged by a peer as opposed to being once again scrutinized by the teacher. With peer evaluation, "students see each other as resources for understanding", and they can bounce ideas off of each other which promotes active learning (Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007). Formative assessment is not simply gathering information. Good teachers use the information collected to make effective instructional decisions. Collecting information is all well and good, but it's what teachers do with the information that counts (Garrison, Ehringhaus; 2007).

Test Administration

It is strongly advisable that teachers evaluate students using a variety of methods in order to maximize student learning (Gould, Vaughn; 2000). Tests may be a common method of assessment, but to adhere strictly to testing is to deny students the opportunity to engage in more enriching and fulfilling learning activities. Tests may indeed be appropriate for some learners, but students absorb information in a variety of ways, and a test may not always be the most effective method of extracting desired information. If it is necessary that tests are administered, i.e., in the case of state-mandated testing, the students should be taught test-taking skills well in advance and be prepared to handle the rigor. They should be familiar with the directions and format before taking the test (Gould, Vaughn: 2000). Students should be taught test-taking strategies such as carefully reading the directions, answering the easy questions first, taking the time to read each and every question, and reading all of the choices before selecting the answer. In this manner, students are armed with the necessary skills to handle the test-taking experience. Teachers should be mindful when administering tests to adapt them to meet the students' needs - for example, some students might require extra time, some might require the directions to be read aloud, and some might require frequent breaks. It is advisable to create different versions of a test to accomodate all students. For example, some students might not have the ability to craft a well-written essay response, so it would be more appropriate to present the test items in an alternative format, perhaps using multiple choice, matching, or short answer questions (Gould, Vaughn; 2000).

Trend Towards Alternative Assessment

Over the past twenty years in the education field there has been a shift away from reliance on traditional assessment methods, and a movement towards the implementation of more innovative assessment strategies designed to promote learning (Buhagiar, 2007). Traditional assessment methods relied heavily on testing and examinations, but educators have realized that this approach is far too restrictive and does not actively promote the learning of all students. It is critical that both instruction and assessment are tailored to meet each student's individual needs, and the assessment methods that are utilized should accomodate different learning styles.
The usage of testing as an assessment tool is limiting in a number of ways: students are not taught higher-level thinking skills, as "examinations emphasize recall of factual knowledge with a heavy reliance on memory and rote learning (Buhagiar, 2007)." Consequently, students learn how to prepare for tests and they learn how to take tests, but they don't develop a true understanding of the content. Students are not afforded the opportunity to actively engage in the learning process, and they don't learn how to analyze, synthesize, or evaluate information. Tests only reveal what students remember, not what they actually learned (Buhagiar, 2007). Furthermore, particulary concerning state-mandated examinations, teachers have a habit of teaching to the test, and will enage in questionable educational practices to produce artificially hight test scores (Buhagiar, 2007). Test results may lead teachers to label certain students underachievers, and, consequently, teachers will expect and accept less from these students. Test results do not necessarily reflect a student's true abilities, and this unfair labeling places a stigma on students that is not easily removed. Instead of motivating students to work harder and become active learners, traditional assessment places students into different categories with different expectations, and only serves to separate students rather than integrate them (Broadfoot, 1996). All students deserve equal opportunity to learn, and traditional assessment is antithetical to this sentiment.

Alternative Assessment

Alternative assessment "treats learning as an active process", where students generate their own learning as opposed to reproducing what they've been taught (Anderson, 1998). Alternative assessment places an emphasis on student creation, providing students with opportunities to show off what they have learned. Students are not limited to giving answers on a multiple choice, pencil-and-paper-test. The purpose of assessment is not to sort or classify students, but to provide them with feedback about their progress (Anderson, 1998). Alternate assessment gives teachers an in-depth, comprehensive picture of their students' abilities and guides them in making effective instructional decisions.
Teachers that embrace an alternate assessment philosophy believe strongly in a democratic decision-making process, where the students help to "establish the criteria to be used in the evaluation process. They establish rubrics for rating the criteria, and they engage in peer and self-evaluation (Anderson, 1998)." As mentioned previously, I've used peer and self-evaluation techniques to great effect in my classroom. In my experience, permitting students to assist in the creation of rubrics heightens student interest and involvement when completing performance-based assessments. The students relish the opportunity to establish their own standards. They acquire a better perception of what is expected of them. Possessing an explicit understanding of my expectations, the students have been more apt to produce quality results. Anderson (1998) has also experienced this, as she states that when her students are clear about what is expected of them, they learn more from the tasks. This is the most important and fundamental task of teaching - to ensure that students are learning and progressing.

IV. Routines/Norms
Establishing routines in class allows for a teacher to maintain greater control of their classroom. It also removes any anxiety a student may have as to what they need to do. If you are able to effectively establish your personal classroom routines you will increase efficiency, which will give you more instruction time by not wasting it on managing behaviors.(Capizzi, 2009) As with all teaching concepts, it may be difficult to instill at the beginning of a year. However the extra time taken when the school year begins establishing classroom standards, will lessen the amount of time you need to work on them the remainder of the year. It becomes increasingly difficult to become stricter, or have children react positively to a more stringent environment, as the year goes on. Teachers must again model appropriately by being consistent with the standards they instill. It becomes a slippery slope when you do not obey the rules you have established. It sends the wrong message to the children. How are you to expect them to follow rules when you do not yourself? Meeting students each morning with a positive disposition, writing the day's agenda on the board, and clearly communicating all classroom onjectives will also go a long way.

Routines can be established academically. Providing each learner with their own folder to put their work into is one way. A 3-ring binder can store all important classroom materials a student has. It can also be divided into sections to they can access material more efficiently. If there is written work, you can make sure it is available to them ahead to time in an established area rather than having to make copies or take your eyes of the class while you look for it. Learning tools like graphic organizers will help students learn in their specifics ubject area. They will begin to see more clearly the objectives of an assignment and, through scaffolding, eventually be able to complete assignments with out them. Routines must also be established for various housekeeping instances.Students must know the procedure for using the bathroom, sharpening their pencil, and handling other classroom interruptions. When you have successfully instituted and consistently followed through on your policies, you will have created an environment that is conducive for effective classroom instruction and management.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Garrison, C., & Ehringhaus, M. (2007). Formative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom.
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