Learning Concepts
Knowledge Dimension
Cognitive Processes
Student Learning Outcome
Assessment
Retelling
Factual
Conceptual
Procedural
Psychomotor
Metacognitive
Remember
Understanding/
Analyzing
Applying
Creating
Evaluating
All students will retell events in a narrative from memory or illustration.
Students' ability to identify characters, setting, and plot from the narrative by pointing to pictures, drawing pictures, or verbalizing important events from the narrative.
Sequencing events in a story
Factual
Conceptual
Procedural
Psychomotor
Metacognitive
Remember
Understanding/
Analyzing
Applying
Creating
Evaluating
All students will identify the beginning, middle and end of a narrative text.
Student's ability to identify what happened at the beginning, middle and end of the story by pointing to pictures, drawing pictures or verbalizing sequential events and details from the narrative.
Goal for Exploring Narratives:
Students will learn to actively engage in listening to a narrative and pay attention to details. They will be able to retell important events from the story, as well as to put these events in the correct sequence. Being able to retell events from a story will help the students to be able to infer texts and construct meaning. Understanding the sequence of events in a story will help the students to be able to comprehend the story better. Having these abilities will help the students have conversations and talk about events they have taken part in from reading the story. This is also building a foundation for future learning about narratives and story telling in upper grades.

Massachusetts Standards
Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences
Reading & Literature
10. Engage actively in read-aloud activities by asking questions, offering ideas, predicting or retelling important parts of a story or informational book.
Mathematics
3. Use positional language and ordinal numbers (first, second, third) in everyday activities.

Where to begin:
Learning Concepts
1.Retelling events in story.
Knowledge Dimensions: Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, Psychomotor, Metacognitve.
Cognitive Processes: Remember, Understanding/Analyzing, Applying, Creating & Evaluating.
Student Learning Outcome
All students will retell events in the story from memory or illustrations.

2. Sequencing events in a story.
Knowledge Dimensions: Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, Psychomotor, Metacognitve.
Cognitive Processes: Remember, Understanding/Analyzing, Applying, Creating & Evaluating.
Student Learning Outcome
All students will be able to identify the beginning, middle, and end of a story.


Teacher Input:
The teacher has previous experience teaching retelling and sequencing. The teacher is familiar with the content. The teacher is familiar with basic topics and stories that the students will be sequencing and retelling. The teacher will set up events for the students to role play the sequence of events. The teacher will provide a variety of situations and stories for the students to practice and learn the concepts. The teacher will provide a variety of activities using visuals, drawings, and language activities to help students understand the concepts being presented.

What is differentiated:
Retelling the story.
Content:
*All students will be able to retell the story using the illustrations to guide their retelling.
*Most students will be able retell the main character, setting, problem and solution in the story.
*Some students will be able to make inferences about a character’s motivation in the story.

Process:
Students will become familiar with the narrative first, through whole group instruction. Students will then be broken down into a variety of groups such as those based on interest, ability level or learning style in order to work with recalling the main events, characters, plot and setting of the story. Students may be provided with a variety of activities to practice retelling the main facts from the narrative.
  • Auditory listeners: listen to the narrative on tape and retell main events from the narrative.
  • Visual learners: have students draw pictures showing main events from the narrative.
  • Tactile learners: teacher will provide students with access to a website to where they can select images and display the main events from a narrative.

Product:
Students will work one on one with a teacher to assess what they have learned about retelling a narrative. They will provided with a variety of activities and expectations will vary based on their age and abilities. Students with limited language will be provided with a variety of pictures and will identify characters, settings, and events from the story they have listened to in class. Students that have great artistic abilities can draw the characters, setting, etc. to show their knowledge. Students that have great language abilities but have difficulties with fine motor skills will be asked a variety of questions, or simply talk about the story to show their knowledge and abilities. All students will be assessed based on the retelling rubric at the bottom of the paper.

Sequencing events in a story.
Content:
*All students will able to identify the beginning, middle and end of a story that the students have had multiple exposures to in class with auditory and visual prompts.
*Most students will be able to identify the beginning, middle and end of story independently.
*Some students will be able to connect similarities between the beginning, middle and end of this story to another story they have previously heard.

Process:
Students will become familiar with the narrative first, through whole group instruction. Students will then be broken down into a variety of groups such as those based on interest, ability level or learning style in order to explore the sequencing of the narratives further. Student may be provided with a variety of activities to practice sequencing events from the narrative.
  • Auditory listeners: listen to the narrative on tape and discuss the events from the story. They will identify the order in which they occurred.
  • Visual learners: provide students with pictures from the story and have them arrange the pictures in the correct order.
  • Tactile learners: teacher will provide students with access to a website to where they can select and arrange images from the narrative in the correct sequence.

Product:
Students will be provided with many varied activities to show their knowledge of story sequencing. Students that like to draw but do not have great communication skills will be provided with opportunities to show their artistic side. Students that have difficulties with drawing and verbalization will be able to point and label items to show their knowledge. Students that are older will be expected to sequence more events and provide more details than younger students. All of these assessments will be performed one on one with a teacher. All students will be assessed based on the sequencing rubric at the bottom of this paper.

What are the student's needs:
Student's readiness:
Students begin school having varying levels of exposure to books. Depending on how often the children were read to and how much access they have to books greatly affects how familiar they will be with narratives when they arrive in preschool. Teachers need to try and find out what the students access and exposure has been prior to entering the classroom. The teacher also wants to find out the students' interests and some books that they might enjoy so they can be incorporated into the projects if possible. One way to do both of these things is through a parent survey about books. The teacher's can use this survey to find out the student's readiness and interests in books. When considering these factors, sequencing and retelling information from a narrative may be concepts that many students have not had prior experience working with in school or at home. To make learning these concepts easier for students, teachers may need to present them to students in a manner that builds upon prior knowledge that the students may have about sequencing or retelling basic events from their day to day life. This will help them to build a foundation about sequencing and retelling that later the teacher can help the students to build upon when connecting it to important information from narrative texts.Student's Interest:To connect students by interest the teacher can include these types of activities: making a snowman, making a sandwich, dressing to go outside when it is cold. In small groups the students can make a sandwich together, build a snowman on the felt board, and dress the weather bear for cold weather. Then having centers where students can practice these activities and have fun with them can make them interested in connecting these skills to reading. These types of activities can give students the background knowledge they need to think about sequencing the beginning, middle and end of a story. The teacher can take into consideration any cultural activities that students may have to help with the beginning, middle and end. By reaching out the parents there may be activities that some cultures partake in that can help spark students’ interests.The vocabulary the students must know is beginning, middle and end. Students need to know these terms to be able to tell what happens in a story. The students can also know positional language such as first, second, third, fourth and last. Theses concepts can be discussed and acted out in whole group. There also can be activities in centers that can lead to beginning, middle and end and also positional language.

Student's Learning Profile:
The teacher needs to try and incorporate many of the learning profiles of their students to help interest their students and teach them the best way possible. Trying to incorporate the learning styles that the teacher has noticed in the classroom can be beneficial for all students because even if a child appears to learn best from one style, it is important for the student to have different opportunities to explore the concepts in a variety of ways.
These styles include:
Global/analytical-breaking down the material into small parts and building it up.
Verbal/imaginal-vebal definitions, learning from symbols and diagrams, lots of discussion and language.
Concrete-real form and in context learning.
Abstract-concept is rule or a principle, it does not need to be seen.
Reflective- this is trial and error learning, thinks thoroughly before using new material or concepts.
Modality-learning through seeing, hearing, touching, smelling and tasting.

How students will learn:
Activities:
Computer- Students will use the kidspiration web program to create story boards of every day events. This will guide them to understand the concept of sequencing events as it pertains to events in their lives. Student will be shown an example of how to create these based on the everyday event "Going Home" in this example students know first they get their coat, then their hat, next is their mittens, and then their backpack. Then the can go to the bus and then bus will take them home.




going_home.jpg
The students will be able to use vocabulary cards to search for pictures to represent events they are familiar with such as: getting ready for school, getting ready for bed, getting ready for outside, brushing their teeth, and getting ready for bed, etc. These can be printed for the teacher to see and for the students to bring home and share with there families.

Storytelling- The whole class will listen to a story read by the teacher. After the story is read the teacher will work with the class to put story event cards in the correct order modeling this activity. Once the cards are in order the teacher will guide the students through the the sequence of events and help them to use positional words to retell what happened first, next, after, at the end etc. When the teacher has modeled this activity several times during whole group instruction and feels that the students are ready to work on this task, the teacher will allow the students to work in small groups or with a partner, providing several story sequencing cards from the stories that have been read to the class. The teacher will then oversee the groups and listen as the students share the stories with their classmates to make sure they use positional words appropriately.
Acting- Groups of students will act out scenes from the story. They will demonstrate their ability to retell important events from the story as well as understand the importance of the ordering of the events and how it affects the story.
Story extension-A story extension is an activity where students will use a stem to help students write about the story they have been reading with their class. Students are scaffolded at their level so all students are illustrating an event, most students are drawing lines to begin writing their message and some students are beginning to use sound maps to sound out words they want to write. For example a stem for students in the fall is "Corduroy went _ ". Students will draw and write about where Corduroy went in the story.
Buddy Reading-Students will buddy read in partners. Students will each choose a book. The books will be written by authors that the class is familiar with from reading in class. Students will take turns using lips and ears mediator cards. The lips are for whose turn it is to read and the ears are for whose turn it is listen. They they switch cards. All students will take turns reading and listening to their partner. Most students will ask their partner what their favorite part of the story is once they have have finished reading. Some students will talk about how the books they have read are the same or how they are different.
Modeling- Using craft materials such as playdough/ clay or brown paper bags for puppets, students will model characters from the story and use the models to act out and retell a sequence of events from the story.
Sequencing cards- Students will arrange sequencing cards depicting main events from the story in the correct order. For students with higher readiness levels: the students will draw their own pictures of the events from the story. Students may also have the option of using the computer to create a sequencing wheel of events from the story. Students can practice using positional language to show which order the events occurred in the story.morning.jpgbuttefly.jpg

Stories online- Students can listen to a variety of stories online to find ones that interest them. Many sites and programs are available to teachers and schools. Here are a few site that the teacher can make available for the students.

Along with the stories online being read to the students, many of these sites provide follow up activities about the stories. The students can play games involving events or characters from the stories or teachers can print out follow up worksheets that allow the students to record their story knowledge, this way teacher can see what the students learned and remembers after listening to the story on the computer.

How is learning demonstrated:
Retelling
Students will demonstrate their knowledge of retelling events in a narrative while working one on one with a teacher. All students will identify at least the main character of a story, at least one setting of the story, and at least one event that took place. Some students will identify more then one character, more then one setting and/or more then one event, and many even provide details about these characters, setting, and events. Students will be able to draw their knowledge, talk about their knowledge, or point at a variety of pictures to identify correct characters, setting, and events. The teacher will either tape record or videotape each student's retelling. This recording will assist in assessing students using the retelling rubric. This recording will also show growth and improvement over the course of an academic year and as an assessment piece to show parents.
Assessments:
Students are given a variety of picture cards with people, animals, and toys on them. They are asked to point to the characters for a specific story that they have listened to from the teacher.
Students are given a blank piece of paper and crayons. They are asked to draw a picture of characters for a specific story, an event that took place, or a setting from the story. If students are verbal they can describe what they drew after they are finished.
Sequencing Events in a story
Students will demonstrate their knowledge of sequencing events in a narrative while working one on one with a teacher. All students will put at least three story events in the correct order. Some students will sequence more then three events correctly. They can either use picture event cards and manipulate the order of the cards to show the order of the events or they can draw the events on sheets of paper and then manipulate to show the order. Verbal students will also talk about the story and the order they sequenced the events while using at least one positional word up to a variety of different positional words to demonstrate their understanding of sequencing and positional vocabulary. The teacher will video tape the students sequencing and explanation. The teacher will video tape a few times a year to show student growth and development.
The teacher will rate the students understanding based on the rubrics below. The teacher will also keep in mind that some students are younger and will have another year of preschool. Other students are non-verbal so they would not be able to perform verbal tasks to demonstrate learning. Non-verbal students should also be provided with word cards to represent the vocabulary words they can use with retelling or sequencing the story, to help them demonstrate that they know what these words mean and how they should be used.


Rubric to Assess learning:
Retelling events in a narrative



Sequencing events in a narrative



Authors: Julie Depasse, Christine Gaspar & Jenna Salvadore (updated 6/30/11)